The main material for making glass is simply the sand containing silicon. The sand containing silicon in general is the good material for making glass.
Glass technology has experienced more than 5000 years of development, and it was not until the 20th century that glass became an industrial material and developed rapidly. In 1908, the Americans invented the "Flat Lafa" and in 1910, the Belgians invented the "vertical upward drawing method with grooves", which freed the production of flat glass from the blowing method which relied on heavy manual labor (see document , 530 pages). In 1924, Pittsburgh Flat Glass Company (now PRG Company) invented the vertical pull-up method, which greatly improved the glass production efficiency. Its influence is no less than that of the assembly line on the automobile industry. In 1959, Pilkington Company (UK) invented the production process of float glass, which became a general process for the manufacture of high quality flat glass. With the development of physics, chemistry and other disciplines, the composition and characteristics of glass are gradually recognized, which creates conditions for the research and development of glass and large-scale production. Today, people can not only use high-quality silica sand to produce optical glass, special glass, crystal glass, medium-quality silica sand to produce flat glass, secondary sand to produce non-ferrous glass, but also according to the needs of national defense and economic construction, research, development and production of various types of special glass.
China is a big glass producer, and its glass production ranks first in the world. The development of China's glass industry can be traced back to Yaohua Glass Factory (the predecessor of China Yaohua Glass Group Company), which was established in Qinhuangdao in 1922. In 1971, Luoyang Glass Factory (now Luoyang Floating Glass Group Company) invented the "Luoyang Floating Glass Technology" and opened a new era of China's national glass industry. At present, China's glass and glass products industry (including construction glass products industry, industrial technology glass manufacturing industry, optical glass manufacturing industry, glass instrument manufacturing industry, daily glass manufacturing industry, glass insulation container manufacturing industry and other glass and glass products industry) has developed into a relatively complete industrial sector. The output of daily glass in China is about 60,000 doors in 1999. The production capacity of flat glass in key enterprises has exceeded 200 million boxes (2000). The output of flat glass has ranked the first in the world for 13 consecutive years. In 2000, the total industrial output value of glass and glass products industry (all state-owned and non-state-owned industrial enterprises with annual sales revenue of more than 5 million yuan, the same below) was 42.829 billion yuan (fixed price in 1990), an increase of 7.9% over the previous year, and an average annual decrease of 5.8% in 2000. It was 9.1% lower than that in 1998, which preliminarily showed the role of reducing staff and increasing efficiency in state-owned enterprises.
Since the reform and opening up, foreign direct investment has played an important role in promoting the development of China's glass and glass products industry. In the capital structure of China's glass and glass industry in 2000, the proportion of state capital, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan capital and foreign capital was 51.8%, 21.0% and 27.2%, showing the important position of FDI in China's glass and glass industry. Compared with 1998, the national capital increased by 2.2%, while the share of Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and foreign capital decreased by 2.0% and 0.2%, respectively. Based on the relevant research [2~3], this paper will analyze the international competitiveness of China's glass and glass products industry from three aspects: competitive strength, competitive potential and competitive environment.